Economic markets are an example of a complex system, in which are variety of interdependent parts engage in interaction. This yields emergent patterns. They are also exceptionally dynamic, so that in any current investigation, data is unfolding and evolving quickly, making most analyses of data observational artifacts. In addition to this, there are examples of self-similarity across different scales or levels of economic markets, which is another characteristic of a complex system. This is a quality that researchers can especially utilize to benefit whatever aspect of financial markets they are working on.
Sarkar, Amitava. Financial Markets as a Complex System. University of Bengal.