complex systems

Economic Markets and Complex Systems

Economic markets are an example of a complex system, in which are variety of interdependent parts engage in interaction. This yields emergent patterns. They are also exceptionally dynamic, so that in any current investigation, data is unfolding and evolving quickly, making most analyses of data observational artifacts. In addition to this, there are examples of self-similarity across different scales or levels of economic markets, which is another characteristic of a complex system.

Viruses and Complex Systems

Viruses can be used to apply to many different things, and in contemporary speech, the terms virus and viral have literally spread to an application that is far wider than the original senses of the word. To gather more data on the contemporary applications to both terms, I analyzed collocates surrounding these node words in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), which is an excellent tool with many different sources of language data.


Sociolinguistics, especially within North America tends to focus on describing language variation in terms of different rule systems, often of a specific speech community. Labov pioneered this work specifically as system approaches to both external and internal mechanisms affecting and motivating language change (Principles of Linguistic Change, 1994, 2001). The goal is emphasized towards local settings for language, which is essentially a complex system and can be understood through this to make thorough and scientific assessments of language data at hand.


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